My Three Half Frame Cameras – Canon Demi, Konica EYE, Olympus Pen EES

My Three Half Frame Cameras – Canon Demi, Konica EYE, Olympus Pen EES

1330 748 Craig Sinclair

I have a confession to make; I’m a bit of a dilettante when it comes to cameras. I can quote some specs and have a pretty decent understanding of what I’m supposed to like and covet. For instance, it’s my understanding that there’s never been a better film than Kodachrome, though that’s easy to say when it’s no longer available. And if my camera has a little red dot on it then I’m cooler than cool. I guess I’m not that cool. I’m alright with that.

I’m not going to talk about the greatest, coolest, best, most coveted cameras today. Instead, I’m going to talk about something I didn’t know existed until just a few years ago, though I’m sure the average camera nerd has been aware of this type of camera for decades.

It started with a church junk sale late one afternoon. There were two cameras on the folding table, one was a Yashica T3 with a Zeiss 35mm f/2.8 lens (more on that a different time) and the other was some quirky looking Konica pocket-type camera. 

“How much for the Yashica?” I asked, appreciating that the “Zeiss” branding might cause the price to soar as high as twenty whole bucks. 

“You can have it. We’re done for the day. Take the Konica too, if you want.”


I walked away with two little cameras. I knew the Yashica was probably decent, but the Konica? I had no idea what it was. Total investment – zero dollars.

The Konica EYE

The Yashica with its periscope viewfinder was fascinating to such a degree that I didn’t even look at the Konica for two days. When I did eventually take a peek through the viewfinder I noticed something very odd; the Konica’s viewfinder framing was not in the usual landscape mode, but vertical portrait mode. That’s weird, right? Weird enough that I decided to ask TheGoogle about what I’d found. It was then that I learned the term “half frame camera.” 

I suspect that if you’re reading this web site, you probably already know what a half-frame camera is. But they’re unusual enough that those of us who are in-the-know can suffer through a little redundant explanation for those who aren’t. 

Camera makers in the mid 1960s (mostly in Japan) decided that consumers might appreciate cost-effective rationing of film. They did this by building cameras that could expose the traditional 35mm film frame (36mm wide by 24mm tall) into two vertical frames, each 18mm wide by 24mm tall or thereabouts. This meant that the user would get double the number of exposures out of a normal roll of film. 

Being of Scottish descent, I’m relatively frugal. Alright, I’m downright cheap. Knowing this about me, you might assume that I’d have heard of a camera that doubled the number of photos I could take with a normal roll of film, but alas, this church junk sale was my first exposure to half frame cameras.

This particular Made in Japan Konica was called the EYE. It featured a 30mm f/1.9 lens that range focused and allowed for manual adjustment of the aperture. The viewfinder showed what aperture and focus range we’ve picked and what out resulting shutter speed will be based on our aperture setting. 

It was a tidy little package, and not knowing if it even worked, I dumped an old roll of Kodak 400 color film into it and took a whole whack of random photographs over a day or two. Upon developing the roll I was pleased with what I saw and quite amused at the resulting diptych type photographs that were the result of a scanner not giving a rat’s ass about half frame cameras. 

Encouraged by these early experiments, I immediately loaded another film into the Konica EYE and spent a bit more time composing this set of photographs. The camera was a little clunky when advancing the film, but it didn’t concern me too much until it felt like I had taken way more than 72 photographs with it. Then I sat down and wound and clicked the camera over and over again. The film counter dial on this camera didn’t work, so the only way to determine if the film was finished was to wind the film and click away until it wouldn’t advance anymore. When I counted 50 or so extra exposures, this after estimating I had already expended the film in the camera, I figured something must be wrong. 

Developing the film showed many multiple exposures and overlapped frames. The film wasn’t advancing. An hour fiddling with a set of small screwdrivers and a bright desk lamp resulted in the camera taken far enough apart to discover the film advancing gear wheel was stripped and jumping. My free camera had died after exactly one and a half tantalizing rolls of film. 

But I was bitten. I wanted, nay, needed another half frame camera, and eBay would prove to be my friend. I ended up with a half frame camera made by Olympus in 1961 called the PEN-EE. There’s an “S” on the front of it too, which I assumed stood for “superawesome” or something similar. It cost a mere $20 from a used camera shop plus a couple of bucks for shipping. 

The Olympus Pen EE S

When it arrived it was rattling like a maraca. With some careful experimental shaking, the source of the rattle became apparent. In the viewfinder; a single, unmounted screw. I emailed the shop who sold it to me. They told me to keep the camera and gave me my money back, and since I already had the little screwdrivers out on my desk from working on the Konica I endeavored to take the Olympus apart. I got it to the point where I had the screw in my hand and could see a single threaded hole that looked like it would fit said screw perfectly. A small dab of blue Loctite on the screw (because if it happened once, it could happen twice) and I had taken my first step toward reassembling my little PEN-EE S. 

Like the Konica, the Olympus PEN-EE S  is a zone focusing camera modeled after a rangefinder, pocket-sized, point-and-shoot camera. It’s a tiny bit smaller in all dimensions in comparison to the Konica EYE, and a bit simpler in operation. The Olympus is fully automatic, with a zone focusing ring on the front. There’s an ASA ring on the front with a range of 10 to 200. There are framing lines inside the viewfinder that are nearly impossible to see in most light, and there’s a frame counter that isn’t even close to accurate. The lens is a tiny 3cm D. Zuiko with a maximum aperture of F/2.8. 

It’s generally a pretty simple camera with an auto adjusting aperture, and the camera will pick either 1/40th or 1/200th for shutter speed depending on light, but there’s no way to tell which it’s going to choose. A little transparent red flag will slowly rise up into the viewfinder and lock out the shutter release if you’re outside the camera’s ability to take a properly exposed photograph, but in my experience the little red flag would sometimes appear when there was plenty of light, and sometimes it would let me take a photograph when it should have been much too dark. That said, the camera has a good weight to it and, most importantly, the film advanced when I turned the thumb wheel on the back of the camera, so it was at least one up on the Konica already. 

The film went in and I clicked through a roll and, well, it was alright. Not great. Not terrible. Just alright.

The Canon Demi

After these two experiences, I still liked the idea of a half frame camera, but a replacement Konica EYE was difficult to find at a reasonable price and the Olympus PEN-EE wasn’t making me super happy, so I dove once more into the used camera fray. This time I managed to find a half frame camera on my local Craigslist, a Canon Demi with all the usual characteristics of the Olympus and the Konica, except this one was a manual exposure camera. This is a good thing, right?

The viewfinder appeared to be a full frame composition tool; no framing lines this time. Exposure was set by rotating a dial on the front of the camera until a pair of pointers on the top of the camera lined up with each other, signaling I’d adjusted the exposure appropriately. Aperture and shutter speed are tied to each other, both going up and down together as we adjust the exposure. 

The 28mm lens starts at F/2.8 linked to 1/30th plus a bulb option. It speeds up to F/22 paired to 1/250th. No clicks in between, just a linear slide of shutter and aperture depending on what we set as the exposure.

I immediately fell in love with the Canon Demi for its exposure control and light meter, but I was also enamored with a delightful little bobble of a lash point for a lanyard, or similar, that screwed into what was ostensibly a tripod mount. It affixed with a coin used as a wrench (a quarter is preferred) and the loop spun freely on the mounting point. Undoubtedly the folks at BlackRapid etc took this as inspiration for their more modern renderings of a strap mounting concept. Canon had it figured out on this camera in 1963. It made it easy to attach to a carabiner on my shoulder bag. 

Of added benefit was a film frame counter that actually worked, and a conveniently placed zone focusing chart on the back of the camera body. The Demi perfectly embodied the old school cool look that a modern Fuji X100F aspires to but, in this case, was totally legit. 

The Canon Demi became my holy grail of half frame cameras. 

Thoughts on the Half Frame Format

Truth be told, the half frame camera was always about getting more for less, which is not usually the best way to approach a problem. To put it in modern terms; the half frame camera essentially cut your resolution in half while limiting your control over exposure and composition. And since frugality was a goal, the cameras were often made to a low price resulting in suspect build quality. All of these compromises allowed us to shoot twice as many pictures for the same amount of money, it’s true. But that’s a hard trade-off.

Most film scanners aren’t concerned with what camera you’re using. As mentioned earlier, when scanning, your exposures will be paired based on what a 35mm frame should be with no regard to your frugal use of film. Your doubling up of exposures will still end up with 36 scans of paired compositions. Obviously you could crop each frame down to halves but the unintended result is you read some magic into the somewhat random pairings of photographs. 

Standalone photographs can lack context, so pairing one to another gives a deeper or broader reading of your subject matter. You’ll know what came next, or what came before, or something like that. Even if one photograph seems unrelated to another you end up looking for connections, and more often than not find them, real or imagined. By poetry, luck, kismet, divine intervention, or whatnot, random pairings manage to be intriguing.

The native vertical/portrait orientation of many half frame cameras may change your approach to taking photographs. The ergonomics of most of our cameras favors the landscape composition. Half frame cameras will challenge this norm and have you framing shots differently and making types of photographs that are slightly different from what you may be used to. 


The three cameras performed very differently. The Konica took decidedly better photographs than the other two; this probably due to the lens being about twice the diameter of the others. The automatic exposure worked well in easy light but didn’t handle subdued or very bright light very well. The Olympus PEN-EE S exposed very consistently and the focus was accurate, but it consistently overexposed nearly everything, so in the future I’ll cheat the ASA to trick the automatic metering into properly exposing images, if I don’t sell it before then. The Demi, well, let’s be honest, none of the three cameras take “good” photographs, but I liked having some control over the exposure and the worst photographs out of the Demi were due to a user who forgot to adjust a focus point between shots, but even some of those out of focus shots have a lovely feel to them that normal 35mm film cameras don’t have. 

The soft focus and bad exposures of this trio of half frame cameras is fairly common among the class of affordable, easy-to-use half framers of the olden days. Just as the detrimental hiss and pop heard when playing vinyl records somehow makes the music better, the less-than-perfect lenses in these less-than-perfect cameras somehow makes the photos more enjoyable. Graininess and off exposure wouldn’t be acceptable in a modern Nikon or Canon, but the reason these old half frame cameras have appeal is because, no matter the filter or post production, there’s something really genuine and simple and honest about the pictures these things make. I like that. And you might, too. 

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Craig Sinclair

Craig Sinclair was born in Ontario and is a University of Toronto School of Architecture graduate living in Vancouver for the second time. His photography explores the underlying narratives existing in found contexts. There is beauty in the ordinary, a concept he explores by taking a photograph every day; an exercise he began in 2007 and continues to this day.

All stories by:Craig Sinclair
  • Nice article and insights!
    I have shot with a little Canon Demi.
    I my case it had a 30mm F1.7 lens which was tough to scale focus.
    Beautiful little thing though!

  • Very interesting article. How about development? Apart from self-developing so to speak, will labs develop, and scan, the negs?


    • Developing isn’t an issue, it’s the same for any film regardless of the camera you use. As for scanning, the lab I use for colour had no problem scanning the images in pairs though the wonky framing due to the film advance wheel being on the cusp of failure must have added to their process of picking frames to scan. I can’t speak for all labs though.

      At home I use an Epson V600 which will pair exposures for a 35mm equivalent scan automatically with the odd issue mostly due to a bad exposure. Also, the big black frame line down the middle might skew any automatic scanning calculations to a slightly darker average. But generally, scanning at home hasn’t been an issue with the odd, easy to rectify hiccup.

      • Hi Craig. I read your article on 1/2 frame cameras. I have a Cannon Demi that my dad carried in the Military the 1/2 frame was good at the time as he had more photos available. 50 years later I want to Scan his slides. I can’t seem to get a definative answer on being able to scan the slides. Can you maybe explain it to me. I am told by some people that I can do it with any scanner, others say no. Others say set up a camera on a tripod and take photos of the slide screen. I would like a little more info before I buy a scanner Thank you for your time. There is a lot of history on his military photos. Much of landscape and people not all war.

        • If you have the negatives, we can scan them at our studio. I shoot 1/2 frame and hand process and scan on our Lasergraphics motion picture film scanner. 8/16/35mm. But can also do half frame. Love the format!
          Instagram @frame_discreet @justin_lovell

  • Very nice article. Surely, there must be a better half frame camera? Wonder what it might be? Seems like one could crop the full frame scan to half the full frame to end up with unpaired half frame images?

    • There are quite a few very excellent half-frame cameras. These ones happen to be more on the consumer side of the quality scale, which is fine. But more “professional” camera systems do exist, like the Pen F series SLR. As with most of Olympus’ best designs, this series has some truly excellent lenses.

      And yes, it’s very simple these days to crop digitally, so half-frame cameras could potentially be more popular than they seem to be at the moment, if people were to catch on.

      We’ve got some more half-frame articles coming up.

  • Very nice article!
    Had a Pen EE-2 myself for a while but I also wasn’t too pleased with it because of the total lack of control -the EE-2 doesn’t even have a focus ring- and I had the same over-exposure problem as you.
    But the half-frame concept really got to me, especially the aspect of it that two by themselves not that meaningful photos can tell a great story if they are placed next to each other on one regular 35mm frame.
    So on the lookout for a proper, good half frame camera I have come across the Olympus pen FT and I think that it might be The half frame camera to get; because of manual controls, lots of great lenses and the fact that it is a system SLR.
    If you (or anyone at CP) ever comes by one of those, Please write an article about it!
    It would be great to hear your opinion on it.


  • Did anyone try pronouncing the name Pen-EE S before sticking it on the front of a camera? Maybe role-playing a few social situations:
    “Hold still a second, Mother Superior, while I get my Pen-EE S out.”

  • I have a Konica EYE, and I absolutely love it. Built like a tank, clean, minimalist design, great lens. Also, rather rare by now. Cheap alternative is the Soviet FED Micron, which is the copy of the Konica.

  • I bought an Olympus FT back in April after endless research on half frames. I came close to buying an EE and a Demi but eventually decided to spend way more for the FT. Using that camera is so rewarding. The shutter sound and feel is on par with the Hasselblad 500cm for me. The design and engineering are outstanding that it is an SLR in a Rangefinder package is great, and allows for perfect manual exposure and the real coup, manual SLR focusing. But you do pay, the EE I passed on was $30 the Demi was $40, I instead paid $300 for a mint FT with the 38mm 1.8 lens.

    • My Pen EE S was $20 Canadian funds. I paid $80 Canadian for the Demi but it came with the lash point doohikie and original case and had just had the light seals replaced. What amazes me is this morning I looked for a Konica EYE on eBay and the only one, never mind the cheapest one, was $120US.

      I’d love an FT, but for the money, and considering how I would use it, I can’t justify the expense. Great camera though.

  • nataliesmartfilmphotography November 29, 2019 at 11:39 am

    I love half frame cameras. I love using my Olympus Pen FT 🙌🏻

  • Great Review Criag your insights at the end of the article are spot on…but that’s actually a Pen EES 😉

  • Great article. I have a bit of a fondness for half frame myself. I have a Canon Demi which to me is just the ultimate take anywhere point and shoot. I also have a Minolta Repo S which is a very solid and well made little camera. Unfortunately mine suffers from sticking aperture blades the fixing of which has been on my to-do list for quite some time now.

  • I vaguely recall when these cameras first appeared. I was not impressed. After all, film was relatively cheap, and the sacrifice in resolution made me dismiss them. Look at a pro SLR full-frame film camera (Canon F1), and you’ll realize that there’s a lot of mass there for exposing a mere 24x36mm patch of film. The half-framers are on their way to the 16mm miniature film size, which was never really successful (I used a Minolta 16 for a few years but was unhappy with the results). As a film guy, I hate to say it, but an iPhone 6 gives better resolution than a half-frame film camera.

  • I just love these unintentional diptychs.

  • Please, does anyone know a half-frame camera that works exposing in aperture priority mode?

    • Konica Auto Reflex T, a SLR which can switch between 24×36 mm and 18 x 24 mm

    • I have a lot of half frame cameras, but the Yashica Electro 35 MC is my go to very small camera with aperture priority. It is smaller than the half frame cameras in this article (close to a Rollei 35 in size but without a retracting lens). Fits easily in a coat or jacket pocket. The lens in very sharp, the electronic shutter is brilliant with long exposures, and it takes a battery that is still available. It is an inexpensive camera because it is zone focus but after a roll or two of film you will be able to get over 95% of your shots in focus. I have had two of these and they are built to last (I wore the first one out)

  • I once owned a Universal Mercury II half-frame, with a rotary shutter; odd looking beast, but the shutter worked. I shot a few rolls with it, in the ’80s. Results were less than great. Maybe that was because someone had used it as a hammer.

  • Thanks a lot for this in-depth overview. I too feel like I am a prize ignorant learning about half-frames only now. But the idea of getting one and developing small double projects is getting more and more appealing by the day. Will definitely take this article to hold my hand as I moonwalk toward eBay yet again. 🙂

  • Michael S. Goldfarb February 3, 2021 at 11:55 am

    I’ve been shooting b/w with a Pen F for the last year and have been pulling beautiful stuff out of it. It’s a delightful shooter.

    But more to the point, my first half-frame camera was a Pen EES-2. This was an improved EES that added:

    1. a hot shoe
    2. a manual setting (locking in the slower of the two shutter speeds) and aperture ring for flash support… but hey, manual f/stop control!
    3. raised the Selenium meter’s top speed to 400, thus supporting a bunch more great films

    So the EES-2 is one of the more desirable Pen direct-view cameras. No, it’s not a gorgeous pro machine like the F series, but for a simple camera mine produced excellent results.

  • Hi
    Thanks for the research you put in to this review. I am a fan of poor quality cheap cameras, as such it I can double my exposures, well that’s a good thing.
    If quality is your goal, than half frame should be avoided. Sadly. The price of film is getting to the point, where no one is going to put that costs into an experimental device.

    Good work


  • This was a very well written article! You’re good with words. Thank you!

  • See the thing with half frame is that you can use it to tell a story, usually one zoomed in shot and one full frame like an establishing and framing shot with motion picture film, it’s fun like that as you can use it to make mini storyboards.

  • Being a complete noob to half-frame, I have a question. The diptycts offered -they are being digitally produced I take it. Is there a half-frame camera that produces the already-combined image inside the camera? That is to say: you’d produce a bunch of already-paired images while shooting, and you wouldn’t have to do a lot of post processing? Just a noobs thinking. Any ideas? Thanks in advance, John, Oakland, CA

    • Anthony-James Owen December 8, 2022 at 2:59 pm

      Hi John, the two images following each other are joined automatically. No post production necessary. You just have a black stripe between the two.

  • Half Frame was killed by B&W photo labs and Kodachrome.
    A lot of labs forgot to adjust the focus of the enlarger when
    the frame for 18×24 mm negs had been inserted.
    Kodachrome did not support 18×24 mm slides in carton frames.
    The Kodak Kodachrome lab service was okay. Developed slide
    films could be retourned UNCUT inclusive 40 frames 24x 36 mm,
    I do not agree films were very expensive in the Sixties. Two Ilford
    FP3 135-36 films cost as much as a tin of Promicrol 600 cc developer.
    It was great fun to have a Kodak Tri-X 400 ASA in an Olympus Pen F.
    Best developer was Kodak Microdol-X 1:3. No problem 8 x 10 prints.
    Half Frame camera have been made by:
    Leica, Olympus, Fuji, Nikon, Canon, Petri, Meisuppi, Robot, Agfa,
    Minolta, Lomo, Ricoh, Yashica, Taron, Bencini, Konica.

  • Anthony-James Owen December 8, 2022 at 2:51 pm

    The first Pen from Olympus was a manual half frame camera. Complete manual. Aperture manual. Distance manual. Time manual. No metering. The later Pen compacts morphed into zone focusing but the first one you can use with a meter and manual settings.

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Craig Sinclair

Craig Sinclair was born in Ontario and is a University of Toronto School of Architecture graduate living in Vancouver for the second time. His photography explores the underlying narratives existing in found contexts. There is beauty in the ordinary, a concept he explores by taking a photograph every day; an exercise he began in 2007 and continues to this day.

All stories by:Craig Sinclair