Helios 44M 58mm F/2 Lens Review – Another Round of Russian Roulette

Helios 44M 58mm F/2 Lens Review – Another Round of Russian Roulette

2400 1350 Josh Solomon

Our frequent coverage of lenses and cameras from the former Soviet Union might make us seem like ardent fans of the subgenre, but I can assure you it’s not the case (true at least for the members of the CP writing staff who aren’t named Jeb). I’ve come to the conclusion that despite their internet reputations for being amazing dark horses, most of these lenses are just sub-par copies of German ones. But there’s one lens in my collection that quietly and consistently reminds me that I don’t know it all, and that lens is the Helios 44M 58mm f/2.

Like many Soviet lenses, the Helios 44M waltzed (or hopaked?) into my life unannounced. It came attached to a Zenit TTL which I wanted to test, but whose busted light meter disqualified it for review (that job fell to Jeb). I quickly unscrewed the Helios from the Zenit and stuck it onto my resident M42 shooter, the elegant Pentax SV.

I had no reason to trust the Helios. Why? It followed the same formula every other lackluster Soviet lens followed; it was a yet another Zeiss knockoff (aping the Zeiss Biotar 58mm f/2), it came attached to a half-broken camera, and it was produced by a factory known for its loose manufacturing tolerances, KMZ (Krasnogorsky Zavod), famous for producing the Industar and Jupiter lenses found on the Leica copies known as FED and Zorki, and since those two lenses ended up being mostly unremarkable, I wasn’t scrambling to get my hands on a Helios.

And right I was, at least at first. The Helios’ build quality ticks all the Soviet lens boxes, for better and worse. It’s incredibly solid in both feel and construction, but has all the sophistication of an Eliza Doolittle. Yes, it packs in all the accoutrements of pricier manual focus SLR lenses, like a focusing scale, half-stop clicks between f-stop markers, and a depth-of-field preview wheel, but the execution here is pretty dismal. The aperture ring feels entirely too loose, my copy has a stiff focus action which on occasion aggravates my carpal tunnel syndrome, and the depth-of-field preview wheel sometimes decides to stop down of its own accord.

But most people will tell that the saving grace of many less-than-stellarly-built Soviet lenses is their overall image quality in relation to their cost. This is an assertion that has time and again proved to be wildly exaggerated, if not flat out wrong. After having been sufficiently disappointed by the performance of a couple of other Soviet “sleeper” lenses I really wasn’t expecting much from the Helios 44M.

Its stellar reputation springs directly from its predecessor, the Zeiss Biotar 58mm f/2. The lens formula itself dates back to the 1920’s and referred to a variation on the six elements in four Double-Gauss formula made famous by the Zeiss Planar. The Biotar was initially manufactured for cinema use, and then adapted for the Exakta mount in 1936. The formula reappeared post-war in the East German-controlled Carl Zeiss Jena plant as the Carl Zeiss Jena 58mm f/2, and was eventually rebranded by the Soviet Union as the Helios 44M we know today.

The first thing that jumps out about this lens’ imaging characteristics isn’t actually the image quality itself; it’s the slightly unusual focal length. The Helios’ 58mm focal length is at the longest end of the definition of the 35mm “standard,” which ranges anywhere from 35mm to 60mm. Avid 50mm shooters may be a little put off by how long this lens is, and die-hard 35mm and 40mm street shooters might find this lens much too narrow for their purposes. I tend towards 50mm, and I find that 58mm works like a charm. It isolates subjects in a clearer way than 50mm does owing to the naturally narrower depth-of-field of 58mm, and presents a slightly tighter, more focused image.

The lens also has a reputation for the unique way it renders bokeh. Wide-open at f/2, the Helios 44M exhibits a signature bokeh swirl, something commonly associated with older lenses. This swirl has become a calling card for the lens and is one of the reasons the Helios has a cult following, but I personally find the effect a little jarring and its usage often gratuitous. Fortunately, the narrower-depth-of-field naturally provided by the 58mm focal length makes subject isolation available at a wider range of apertures, offering some control over how much swirl exists in a given image.

Across the f/16 to f/2 aperture range the Helios 44M remains remarkably consistent. The lens wide-open does exhibit a slight loss of contrast and somewhat pronounced vignetting, but when closed-down things sharpen up considerably. And it’s not just sharp for a Soviet lens, it’s sharp compared to any and all. This is one of the rare Soviet lenses whose optical quality gets very close to the standard set by its forebears. Although the narrow focal length limits its usage for wide landscapes, its sharpness corner-to-corner and above-average resolution past f/5.6 makes it a wonderful choice for general purpose photography, and its surprisingly good center sharpness and subject isolation at f/2.8 and f/4 make it an excellent lens for portraiture.

Color rendition on the Helios does follow the Soviet standard in that it offers a cooler, muted color palette. Contrast is muted as well, which does make for some flat, cold, and somewhat lifeless photos overall, especially when adapting the lens to a modern mirrorless camera or DSLR. This isn’t a huge deal; pushing around the contrast and saturation sliders in Lightroom or Photoshop solves this problem entirely, as does shooting more vibrant, saturated films such as Kodak Ektar, Kodak Ultramax, or Fuji Superia 400.

All that said, the most attractive part about the Helios 44M, and most Soviet lenses, is the price point. The Helios 44M on its own can go from anywhere from $30-80, depending on condition. I do recommend looking out for Helios 44M’s that are attached to Zenit SLR’s, as they often go for the same price. That said, I do recommend ditching the Zenit and mounting the lens to a Pentax M42 mount camera like the Spotmatic or the SV for an easier shooting experience, unless you really like fighting with your equipment.

After being disappointed by Soviet lenses in the past, the Helios 44M was a pleasant surprise, and has become a welcome sight on my SV. Its slightly narrow focal length suits my style of shooting very well, and the images it makes impress me almost every time. It’s a genuine Soviet sleeper lens, and deserves every bit of praise it gets.

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Josh Solomon

Josh Solomon is a freelance writer and touring bassist living in Los Angeles. He has an affinity for all things analog. When not onstage, you can find him roaming around Southern California shooting film and humming a tune.

All stories by:Josh Solomon
  • I heard about Helios lenses and went searching for one, with no idea of what version to get. I managed to find this particular version for $50AU and I am so pleased with the results it produces. Amazing!

  • Hey Guys, I have the same version and its one of my favourite lenses. I think a lot of people come for the swirly Bokeh but stay for the imagine quality.

    it’s worth noting that mine does not mount on my Spotmatic F, earlier models might be better off, i use mine on a Praktica instead. I have the same issue with the popular Zeiss Jena Sonnar 135mm, wont mount easily.

    Still its a great lens and its character really helps set it apart from the many other 50mm lenses for M42.

    • Soviet manufacturing tolerances strike again! Thanks for the info. Hopefully others can avoid that headache!

      • I have the Helios 81M (original Nikon F mount, made for Kiev 17 cameras) 53mm f/2. I use it with Nikon TC-200 converter in my Nikon D7000. Such combination gives great close ups, beautiful bokeh and you get focus confirmation. I bought a damaged Kiev 17 with this intact lens for US$20 in a grocery store! Apparently, it was traded for groceries, here in Ecuador, South America.

  • I own a 44M-4 (not sure what the difference is in comparison to the 44M) and absolutely adore it. Usually shooting it on my Fuji X-T10 it’s my go to portrait lens. Although straight out of camera the images are a little flat, as you say push the contrast and saturation up in Lightroom and you can get some great results. Seeing as my perfect copy only cost £8 I’m a huge fan.

    • I have the same version. I think it’s best at close portraits with dark backgrounds, where the swirl is either unobtrusive or unnoticeable. I have found, contrary to Josh, that it’s a challenging lens to use as a general shooter as it looses a lot of contrast very easily, even closed down, when a light source is near the frame. I like the veiling effect better when using b&w film on my spotmatic.

  • Yep, I gotta agree. I got mine attached to a cheap Zenit E. The camera never worked but I was smitten with the lens. Now I shoot it with my Pentax Spotmatic or MX. It was really only after I went into a panic after I thought Id accidentally got rid of it that I realised how much I loved it. (I actually even love the cheesy swirly bokeh.)

  • I have one of the older versions of this lens it’s heavier slightly shorter with a narrow stop down ring at the front of the lens, this needs stopped down after you choose the aperture or you end up taking pics wide open, this lens has been paired with my Pentax SV for around ten years and is always my go to sunny 16 combination, I pick this up when I start to lose it with medium format ( a work tool ) which happens several times a year the simplicity of a sunny 16 combination always frees up the mind and gets the creative juices flowing once again, the Pentax SV is an ideal no nonsense tool and once you familiarize yourself with an old Helios lens you will find yourself using both without thinking, it becomes second nature a perfect pairing although I’m sure it would work on other cameras I’ve never found the need.

  • I personally own Helios 44M and its overall a good all around lens, even before you include its low cost, Quality control is spotty, so I cant relate to sharpness after f5.6 on mine lens. Dont misundestand me, its adequate and good but just a bit softier for me (i shoot mostly city structures recently). That being said – its my go to lens usually paired with Zenit 12XP and nothing will make me part with it. Portraits and street photo? Hell yes, it can do it on the level. Just dont drop it on your feet – might need to see a medic after that. Little side note – its flare resistance is low even with sidelight, with serious contrast loss on all frame so use blend or just compensate with PS.

  • Joe shoots resurrected cameras September 5, 2018 at 2:28 pm

    I shoot M42 almost exclusively, but it’s mostly Pentax and Mamiya lenses. If a Helios-44 fell into my lap for a few dollars I wouldn’t turn it down, that said I don’t think I’d go out of my way too far to get one.

  • I have a clean copy of the Helios 44K-4 (k-mount, rather than M42) – later version, better coatings, but has lost some of its swirly-ness in the bokeh…. love it on a DSLR!

  • i’m tired of reading the same rehashed drivel in regard to lenses from the soviet union: »rip-offs«, »lackluster« »sub-par« … what is it with you united statesians (because it’s exclusively you people writing in such a manner) that makes you think you’ve got a free pass to drop condescending and thinly-veiled jingoism in your online articles?

    a »half broken camera« says more about the user than it does about the camera itself. you start out with an attitude that these lenses are basically no good, and when you find out that they are, you act all surprised.you talk about »rip-offs« without reason, ignoring the fact that many of the zeiss lens designs were improved on by soviet developers in later years and decades.

    what’s more, these very soviet designs are being rebranded as »meyer-optik görlitz« and sold for a premium as leica m-mount lenses.

    if you want to be taken seriously, get off your high horse before you start writing an article about photography that brims with misinformation and attitude, but is sorely lacking in the fields of fact- and level-headed approach to the matter at hand. i have read hundreds of articles like yours over the past 10-15 years, and as noted above, it’s always some dude from the usa with the same predictable formular: soviet union products generally shite, but for 2 bucks, they’re a passable option.

    i’d call that a sub-par rip-off of previous u.s.-based reviews, coupled with a lackluster approach to do any serious testing or research. checked your piece on the industar 61 l/d, and it’s the same text more or less, with the lens name changed.

    if your contributions are indicative of the overall non-quality of this site (which i came to by means of link recommendation), then i’m glad i haven’t wasted more of my time perusing it.

    the reference snapshots don’t help much, either … were they shot with a disposable camera?

    stick to your u.s. photo trash, apart from kodachrome i don’t think there was ever a photography product worthy of note coming from the states.

    cheers from a german leica user with leitz/zeiss lenses.

    p.s.: if you want to know how reviews are done and written, check out this site—run by germans, of course: https://www.phillipreeve.net/

    • Your rant doesn’t change the fact that a much larger percentage of Soviet era lenses (compared with Japanese and German lenses of the same era) are malfunctioning or broken when they come through our camera shop. There is a pile of Soviet lenses here that cannot be sold and must be repaired (but never will be, because they aren’t worth the time). If you’d like proof that Soviet era lenses are lacking in quality control I’ll send you this giant box full of them and they can collect superior German dust in your superior German basement.

      Next, Meyer Optik Gorlitz (umlaut passed over because my American fingers are too fat and lazy to manipulate all those keys) which you hold up as a beacon of quality just filed for bankruptcy. So they must be doing a good job, right?

      Lastly, we have five writers and hundreds of articles on classic cameras and photography. The two you referenced were written by the same person, and it’s possible that his writing style doesn’t work for you. That’s fine. I don’t love every writer I read either. But instead of condescending and dropping your own “thinly-veiled jingoism” on us, why don’t you read something from me, or Dustin, or Chris, or Jeb. Actually, let me help you – here are a few articles written by Jeb in which he talks about how much he loves Soviet cameras and lenses.




      Your comment doesn’t bother me, personally, because it’s over-balanced by the thousands of incredible and positive messages I’ve received from people who tell me that this website has helped them enjoy this hobby, or introduced them to photography, or film, or a lens, or a camera, or simply entertained them. I’ve only taken the time to respond to it because I don’t typically allow people to walk into my house and stomp on my children without at least suggesting that they perhaps shouldn’t do that.

      Cheers, from a stupid American.

      • I agree with you. But you North Americans have the fault. These guys lost the war but you rebuilt their country for free. They stole many inventions from the Czechs, like the air cooled engine of the VW. The glass from their lenses, as the glass of Galileo’s telescope, came from Bohemia. But today Japanese lenses and cameras are far superior

        • the united statesians didn’t rebuild the country for “free”, who told you such nonsense? after the nazis were defeated, both the soviet union and the usa wanted a foothold in central europe in order to gain an upper hand in their power play, and a country with a defeated fascist regime was the best option.

          and although the admin was thoughtful enough to edit your post, your claim “that germans are disgusting” speaks volumes about you, rather. good luck.

    • What you just witnessed is what all of us Europeans make fun of: the über-typical German complex of superiority. See, the typical German only likes German stuff because nothing is never as great as German stuff. The German eats his superior German sausages and washes them down with superior German pilsner. Then he puts on his superior Hugo Boss coat, drives his superior Volkswagen downtown while listening to Mahler’s fifth symphony. He parks his car with precision, takes his superior Leica MP fitted with superior Zeiss glass, walks the streets where he consistently takes god-awful pictures because Germans are incapable of Art and have the creativity of robots.

      Today, he defends Soviet lenses (although he admits he doesn’t use them) simply because they were copies of superior German designs. Then he wallows in primitive anti-americanism. Superior Germans are as bitter as Kuemmerling liquor towards Americans since the 1940s, for some reason.

      Otherwise, Soviet lenses are definitely sub-par. No one buys them for another reason than their low price. Even Russian professional photographers, as soon as the iron curtain fell, dropped their Zenit and Kiev cameras and their Svema film to buy Canon and Nikon SLRs with Fuji and Kodak (yes, American) film. The Soviet brand Lomo has even become synonymous of lo-fi and crapshoot.

  • I am sure the Soviet-era stuff is second-rate, and so I must disagree with Herr Müller’s derogatory remarks about your reviews. I am puzzled though that a German would say such things, for he must know that the Soviet optical industry has never been remotely close to that of Germany’s. Otherwise, why does he use Leica? I do, I might point out.

    • In fact the Soviet-era stuff is the best stuff. Quality did begin to decline before the fall of communism, but stuff from the really hardline communist period, from the 1950’s and 60’s, has the best quality control. In fact, it turns out, control is important. There was a gradual but increasing decline during the 1970’s and, particularly 1980’s, and then Communism ended. It was a very similar situation with Russian and other Soviet watches.

  • I see this an old review, but I’m a fan of Josh, and it came up in a google search, so I read it. This lens just arrived on a dead Zenit I bought for almost nothing, and when I tried it on my Fuji I was shocked. I have tested sharper lenses, but not many, and they cost many times more than this one. The colors are superb. Highly recommended. The Zenit is going in the box with all the other inoperative Zenits.

  • The Helios 44 underwent numerous revisions and upgrades, upgrades that signifciantly impact sharpness. You can find detailed information at Camerapedia: https://camerapedia.fandom.com/wiki/Helios-44 Long story short, the number represents the generation and sharpness, thus the sharpest of them all is the Helios 44M-7. You can actually buy them from the Helios site itself, which offer their old lenses and adapters. https://helios-lens.com/tproduct/124170769-908391608857-helios-44m-7-mc-58mm-f2

    Great site and loved the articles.

  • Gee you guys have bad luck with Russian gear.Perhaps if you bought serviced equipment off reputable sellers it would help rather than bagging gear you probably bought at super low prices.You get what you pay for

    • As the owner of a camera shop, I agree with you! And for what it’s worth, we don’t review examples of gear that have flaws. We do our best to ensure that when we’re reviewing a camera or lens, that the camera or lens is as good as it would have been when it was just a few years old.

      • Hi James, consider the information I posted above. The issue is twofold:

        1) The Helios 44 underwent a series of incremental upgrades over the many years it was produced, improving coatings and central sharpness. Camerapedia provides more detailed information, including resolutions. Suffice it to say the Helios 44M (with no added digit after), is easily the least sharp of them all. The Helios 44M-4 would be much sharper, and the sharpest is the Helios 44M-7. Yes, the higher the number, the more recent and sharper it is theoretically.

        2) For pure review and testing purposes you might be best served buying it directly from Helios themselves. They aren’t necessarily the cheapest, but they do state they are extremely circumspect about the condition of the lenses they sell.


        Perhaps worth revisiting?

        I bought one myself on ebay for less ($55), but that was my choice.

  • I bought one of these this morning. Frankly, compared with a Pentax 55mm from the 1960’s or 1970’s, it’s a dog. Ignoring its mechanical roughness, the optics are, well, also basic. There is some sharpness in the very centre wide open, but the sharpness fall off at the corners and sides is so great you can see it clearly in an SLR viewfinder. It gradually improves as you stop down, of course, but rather than being great by about F3.5 and unimpeachably brilliant by 5.6, this one is good by F8 and very, very sharp at F11, which is also where you realise just how muted the colour seems to be. And it flares like nothing else, wiping out the contrast that is on the low side even with the sun behind you.

    The bokeh is harsh but fun – I like it best at 2.5 and 2.8. I like the swirls. It’s a fun thing to have in your optical armoury. But honestly, it’s still a bit of a dog.


  • I have three Helios 44-2 lenses, and yes, the quality does vary, the best being a KMZ variant made for a Soviet era surveillance camera. The other two are Valdai variants, one of which is quite poor optically, and it gets the most use as it has the most beautiful muted rendition of colour. I believe that there were about 3 million made, and yes it is a crap shoot getting a good one, but they are still relatively cheap. The Biotar design is very different compared to modern day digital optics, and takes quite some getting used to. I find that the bokeh is best at f2.8 and sharpness really starts to kick at f5.6 onwards. I have an ‘O’ ring around the rear focus assembly to take out the clickety play, and use a very deep, very large lens hood to control flare. It is a fantastic lens.

  • Versuche gerade einen Helios 44-6 58mm f2 auf einer Praktica MTL5, eingelegt ist ein Fomapan 400.
    Hatte vorher schon einen anderen 44-6, aber die Blende saß fest.
    Früher hatte ich auch einen Helios 44-2, aber dieses alte Blendensystem finde ich zu umständlich, aber die Bildqualität war gut.
    Dann habe ich viele Jahre Pentacon – Objektive 50mm benutzt, ich habe sie geliebt, aber die sind jetzt auch defekt.
    Und das gute Zeiss Pancolar 50mm ist zu kostbar für den Alltag, das nehme ich nur für besondere Zwecke, z.B. Portraits.
    Jetzt bin ich mal gespannt, wie sich das Helios 44-6 im Vergleich schlägt.
    Es ist auf jeden Fall gut gebaut,alles aus Metall, der Blendenring rastet gut ein und es hat auch ein Multicoating.

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Josh Solomon

Josh Solomon is a freelance writer and touring bassist living in Los Angeles. He has an affinity for all things analog. When not onstage, you can find him roaming around Southern California shooting film and humming a tune.

All stories by:Josh Solomon